Making of a Land - Chapter 4

Illustrations chapter 4.

Illustrations can be downloaded in the gallery further down.


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Chapter 04 - p. 120-121 

Giemašfjellet, on the east side of Tanafjorden, consists of folded sandstones of Neoproterozoic age. The pure quartz rocks are quarried at Austertana to use the quartz for industrial purposes. The successions from the last part of the Precambrian are very well exposed and thoroughly studied in the Tanafjord–Varangerfjorden region. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 122 

Simplified map of the Baltica continent as it may have looked when it separated from the supercontinent, Rodinia. The north-eastern and north-western margins, the Timanian and Baltoscandian margins, respectively, delimited the "Norwegian" part of the continent.

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Chapter 04 - p. 123

Map of the north-western part of Baltica showing the present distribution of Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks (yellow) in Norway and along the Caledonian thrust front. The Neoproterozoic Gardnos Crater and the Fen volcano are situated at Gardnos and Fen, respectively. Other Caledonian rocks are indicated with pale grey colour. 

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Chapter 04 - p. 124

Geological map of Finnmark showing the most important divisions of the bedrock. Compiled from various sources.

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Chapter 04 - p. 125

The Neoproterozoic to Cambrian successions in the Tanafjorden – Varangerfjorden and Barents Sea regions. (Adapted from several works by A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 126a

Podolina minuta, a star-shaped acritarch, a microfossil, just a few micromillimeter in size, from the lower part of the Vadsø Group beside Varangerfjorden, on av the oldest fossils in Norway, found, prepared and photographed by Gonzalo Vidal.

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Chapter 04 - p. 126b

Shallow-water marine sandstone beds in the Dakkovarre Formation of the Tanafjorden group at Skallnes on the south coast of the Varanger Peninsula. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 126c

Dark-red mudstone and light-red sandstone in the Fugleberget Formation on the south side of the island of Vadsø. The beds were deposited as sandbanks in rivers. One sand bed was folded by the force of strongly flowing water during a flood. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 127

Examples of columnar and branching stromatolites in the Porsanger dolomite on the west side of Porsangen, near Trollsundet. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 128

The Bigganjarga tillite at Oibacšanjarga in Varangerbotn, is fossilised moraine from the approximately 600 million-year-old Varangerian Ice Age. This world-famous deposit is protected. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 129a

Thick, grey, turbiditic sandstones of the Kongsfjord Formation beside the Barents Sea in Kongsøyfjorden, Varanger Peninsula. The beds were deposited as huge submarine sand fans more than 700 million years ago. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 129b

Multicoloured beds of shales, sandstones and dolomites in the upper part of the Båtsfjord Formation in the Barents Sea Group in inner Persjorden, Varanger Peninsula. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 130

Ediacaran fossils from the Stáhpogieddi Formation at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary on the south coast of the Digermulen Peninsula. The imprints are of round, jellyfish-like organisms, a few centimetres in diameter. (Photo: A. Siedlecka)

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Chapter 04 - p. 131

The geological development of the Tanafjorden-Farangerfjorden region southwest of the Trollfjorden-Komagelva Fault Zone (TKFZ) and the Barents Sea region northeast of the fault zone. a) Deep-water and, later, shallow -water marine sediments were deposited in a basin northwest of the Varanger Peninsula. b) and c) Sediments were deposited on fluvial plains and in shallow sea in the Tanafjord-Varangerfjord region. d) The successions of the Barents Sea Group and the Løkvikfjellet Group slide from northest to southeast along the TKFZ and form the Barents Sea region on the northeast side of the Varanger Peninsula.

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Chapter 04 - p.132

Chalk-white Porsanger dolomite in 30 °C and a heat haze near Børselv in Porsangen casts our minds back to the hot areas in southern latitudes where this carbonate deposit was formed some 650 million years ago. The snow on the mountains in the background reminds us of the great climatic changes in the i Neoproterozoic. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 133

Sparagmite, feldspar-rich sandstone (arkose), sometimes containing large, angular clasts, was named by Jens Esmark in 1829. (Photo: I. Bryhni)

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Chapter 04 - p. 134

Igneous rocks in the Seiland Province, Reinfjorden, on the Øksfjord Peninsula. Gneiss on the lower slope of the mountainside is intruded by layered igneous rocks which occupy the upper part of the cliff. Black ultramafic rocks occur in two series separated by an older, light-grey gabbro. The nearly 600 m high mountainside provides a section thourgh a huge magma chamber. (Photo: B. Robins)

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Chapter 04 - p. 135

Light-coloured metasandstone in the Kalak Nappe Complex cut by dolerite dykes metamorphosed to amphibolite. The rocks probably derive from a basin on the outer side of Baltica and were moved several hundred kilometers during the Caledonian orogeny. Road cut south of Hammerfest on Kvaløya. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 136

The Sparagmite Region in south Norway.

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Chapter 04 - p. 137

The Rondane Mountains consist of hard, Late Precambrian metasanstones that are approximately 650-750 million years old. During the Caledonian orogeny, these sandstones were thrust several hundred kilometres eastwards from basins along the Baltoscandian margin of Baltica. (Photo: C. Harbitz)

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Chapter 04 - p. 138

The succession in the Hedmark Basin, the Hedmark Group; the western part to the left and the eastern to the right.

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Chapter 04 - p. 139a

Rendalssølen (1754 m) is a landmark in the sparagmite region of eastern Norway. The mountain is composed of the Rendalen Formation, sandstones deposited by rivers in the eastern part of the Hedmark Basin 700–750 million years ago. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 139b

Cross-bedded sandstone from an infilled river channel in the Rendalen Formation on the summit of Rendalssølen. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 139c

Limestone breccia in the Biri Formation in a road cut on E6 at Kremmerodden, Biri. Up to 50 cm long fragments of the limestone were broken up by tidal currents or powerful waves. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - P. 140a

The Brøttum Formation in Maihaugvegen, Lillehammer. Beds of turbiditic sandstones and shales were deposited on the floor of hte Hedmark Basin and raised into a vertical position during the orogenic movements at the end of the Silurian. The shaley beds contain acritarchs, the oldest fossils found in southern Norway. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 140b

Beds of conglomerate and sandstone in the Biskopåsen Formation in a road cut near Havik on the east side of Lake Mjøsa. The beds are vertical due to thrusting during the Silurian-Devonian Caledonian orogeny.. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 141

Evolution of the Hedmark Basin through six phases from its initial formation by rifting until Baltica was covered by the sea at the beginning of the Cambrian 542 million years ago.

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Chapter 04 - p. 141a- b

a) 750 mill. yrs
b) 750-680 mill. yrs

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Chapter 04 - p. 141c-d

c) 680-650 mill. yrs
d) 630-590 mill.yrs - Varangerian Ice Age

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Chapter 04 - p. 141e-f

e) 570-550 mill.yrs - Ediacaran time
f) 542 mill. yrs - early Cambrian

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Chapter 04 - p. 142a

Papillomembrana compta, the first Precambrian fossil found in Norway. The fossil, of unknown affinity and just over 1 mm long, was found by Nils Spjeldnæs i 1959 in a phosphorite clast in the Biskopåsen Formation near Havik, beside Mjøsa. (Photo: N. Spjelndæs)

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Chapter 04 - p. 142b

A rock core (4 cm in diameter) from Østre Æra, between Rena and Ossjøen in Østerdalen. Basalt lava (dark) flowed over unconsolidated sand (light coloured), some of which was rolled into the base of the lava. The lava extrusions took place during an active rifting phase in the Hedmark Basin. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 143a 

Moelv tillite from the approximately 600 million-year old Varangerian Ice Age exposed as ice-polished rock from the last Ice Age, about 10 000 years ago. The tillite has large and small clasts of basement rocks and limestone. Bruvollhagan, Moelv. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 143b 

The Ringsake quartzite from the very base of the Cambrian, the youngest part of the Hedmark Group, Steinsodden on the east side of Mjøsa in Ringsaker. Looking northwards towards Mjøsa Bridge. Lundehøgda and Biskopåsen in the background are also in the type are for the Hedmark Group. (Photo: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 143c 

The Ringsaker quartzite, with vertical burrows excavated by a lugworm-like mollusc. Langodden, on the east bank of Lake Mjøsa.  (Foto: J.P. Nystuen)

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Chapter 04 - p. 144

Old source rock for oil: black shale in the Brøttum Formation in Maihaugvegen in Lillehammer. Black shale with a high content of organic carbon (black) is overlain by a thin layer of silt with light-coloured quartz grains. The silt has sunk into the clay, forming the boot-shaped structure. (Foto: M.K.M. Skaten)

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Chapter 04 - p. 145a

The Gardnos Crater.

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Chapter 04 - p. 145b

The Gardnos Crater. Cross section through the Gardnos Crater.

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Chapter 04 - p. 145c

The Gardnos Crater. Core from Branden.

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Chapter 04 - p 146

Geological map of the Fen area. The rocks were formed by many different magmatic processes far below the summit of the Fen volcano.  (Modified after E. Sæther)




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